The concept of a connected world using Internet of Things (IoT) has already taken pace during this decade. The efficient hardware and high throughput networks have made it possible to connect billions of devices, collecting and transmitting useable information. The benefit of IoT devices is that they enable automation however, a significant amount of energy is required for billions of connected devices communicating with each other. This requirement of energy, unless managed, can be one of the barriers in the complete implementation of IoT systems. This paper presents the energy management system for IoT devices. Both hardware and software aspects are considered. Energy transparency has been achieved by modelling energy consumed during sensing, processing, and communication. A multi-agent system has been introduced to model the IoT devices and their energy consumptions. Genetic algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of the multi-agent system. Finally, simulation tools such as MATLAB Simulink and OpenModelica are used to test the system. The optimization results have revealed substantial energy consumption with the implementation of decentralized intelligence of the multi-agent system.

This book discusses the recent trends and developments in the fields of information processing and information visualization. In view of the increasing amount of data, there is a need to develop visualization techniques to make that data easily understandable. Presenting such approaches from various disciplines, this book serves as a useful resource for graduates.

Nuclear infrastructure systems play an important role in national security. The functions and missions of nuclear infrastructure systems are vital to government, businesses, society and citizen's lives. It is crucial to design nuclear infrastructure for scalability, reliability and robustness. To do this, we can use machine learning, which is a state of the art technology used in various fields ranging from voice recognition, Internet of Things (IoT) device management and autonomous vehicles. In this paper, we propose to design and develop a machine learning algorithm to perform predictive maintenance of nuclear infrastructure. Support vector machine and logistic regression algorithms will be used to perform the prediction. These machine learning techniques have been used to explore and compare rare events that could occur in nuclear infrastructure. As per our literature review, support vector machines provide better performance metrics. In this paper, we have performed parameter optimization for both algorithms mentioned. Existing research has been done in conditions with a great volume of data, but this paper presents a novel approach to correlate nuclear infrastructure data samples where the density of probability is very low. This paper also identifies the respective motivations and distinguishes between benefits and drawbacks of the selected machine learning algorithms.

To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, development of rapid, selective, sensitive diagnostic systems for early stage β-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) virus protein detection is emerging as a necessary response to generate the bioinformatics needed for efficient smart diagnostics, optimization of therapy, and investigation of therapies of higher efficacy. The urgent need for such diagnostic systems is recommended by experts in order to achieve the mass and targeted SARS-CoV-2 detection required to manage the COVID-19 pandemic through the understanding of infection progression and timely therapy decisions. To achieve these tasks, there is a scope for developing smart sensors to rapidly and selectively detect SARS-CoV-2 protein at the picomolar level. COVID-19 infection, due to human-to-human transmission, demands diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) without the need of experienced labor and sophisticated laboratories. Keeping the above-mentioned considerations, we propose to explore the compartmentalization approach by designing and developing nanoenabled miniaturized electrochemical biosensors to detect SARS-CoV-2 virus at the site of the epidemic as the best way to manage the pandemic. Such COVID-19 diagnostics approach based on a POC sensing technology can be interfaced with the Internet of things and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques (such as machine learning and deep learning for diagnostics) for investigating useful informatics via data storage, sharing, and analytics. Keeping COVID-19 management related challenges and aspects under consideration, our work in this review presents a collective approach involving electrochemical SARS-CoV-2 biosensing supported by AI to generate the bioinformatics needed for early stage COVID-19 diagnosis, correlation of viral load with pathogenesis, understanding of pandemic progression, therapy optimization, POC diagnostics, and diseases management in a personalized manner.

Biosensors are emerging as efficient (sensitive and selective) and affordable analytical diagnostic tools for early-stage disease detection, as required for personalized health wellness management. Low-level detection of a targeted disease biomarker (pM level) has emerged extremely useful to evaluate the progression of disease under therapy. Such collected bioinformatics and its multi-aspects-oriented analytics is in demand to explore the effectiveness of a prescribed treatment, optimize therapy, and correlate biomarker level with disease pathogenesis. Owing to nanotechnology-enabled advancements in sensing unit fabrication, device integration, interfacing, packaging, and sensing performance at point-of-care (POC) has rendered diagnostics according to the requirements of disease management and patient disease profile i.e. in a personalized manner. Efforts are continuously being made to promote the state of art biosensing technology as a next-generation non-invasive disease diagnostics methodology. Keeping this in view, this progressive opinion article describes personalized health care management related analytical tools which can provide access to better health for everyone, with overreaching aim to manage healthy tomorrow timely. Considering accomplishments and predictions, such affordable intelligent diagnostics tools are urgently required to manage COVID-19 pandemic, a life-threatening respiratory infectious disease, where a rapid, selective and sensitive detection of human beta severe acute respiratory system coronavirus (SARS-COoV-2) protein is the key factor.

With 80 percent of the world’s commodities being transported by water, ports are the pillars of the global economy. Port Management and Operations offers readers the opportunity to enhance their strategic thinking and problem-solving skills, while developing market foresight. It examines global port management practices at the regulatory, commercial, technological, operational, financial, and sociopolitical levels.

Examining sea, land, and air transportation systems and linkages, Logistics and Transportation Security: A Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Guide to Resilience provides thorough coverage of transportation security. Its topics include hazardous material handling, securing transportation networks, logistics essentials, supply chain security, risk assessment, the regulatory framework, strategic planning, and innovation through technology.

Research on political representation has traditionally focused on the design of electoral systems. Yet there is evidence that voting costs result in lower turnout and undermine voters’ confidence in the electoral system. Election administrators can selectively manipulate participation costs for different individuals and groups, leading to biased electoral outcomes. Quantifying the costs of voting and designing fair, transparent and efficient rules for voter assignment to polling stations are important for theoretical and practical reasons. Using analytical models, we quantify the differential costs of participation faced by voters, which we measure in terms of distance to polling stations and wait times to cast a vote. To estimate the model parameters, we use real-world data on the 2013 midterm elections in Argentina. The assignment produced by our model cut average voting time by more than 27%, underscoring the inefficiencies of the current method of alphabetical assignment. Our strategy generates better estimates of the role of geographical and temporal conditions on electoral outcomes.

Mineral exploration under a thick sedimentary cover naturally relies on geophysical methods. We have used high-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradient data over northeast Iowa to characterize the geology of the concealed Precambrian rocks and evaluate the prospectivity of mineral deposits. Previous researchers have interpreted the magnetic and gravity gradient data in the form of a 2D geologic map of the Precambrian basement rocks, which provides important geophysical constraints on the geologic history and mineral potentials over the Decorah area located in the northeast of Iowa. However, their interpretations are based on 2D data maps and are limited to the two horizontal dimensions. To fully tap into the rich information contained in the high-resolution airborne geophysical data, and to further our understanding of the undercover geology, we have performed separate and joint inversions of magnetic and gravity gradient data to obtain 3D density contrast models and 3D susceptibility models, based on which we carried out geology differentiation. Based on separately inverted physical property values, we have identified 10 geologic units and their spatial distributions in 3D which are all summarized in a 3D quasi-geology model. The extension of 2D geologic interpretation to 3D allows for the discovery of four previously unidentified geologic units, a more detailed classification of the Yavapai country rock, and the identification of the highly anomalous core of the mafic intrusions. Joint inversion allows for the classification of a few geologic units further into several subclasses. We have demonstrated the added value of the construction of a 3D quasi-geology model based on 3D separate and joint inversions.

Working in an environment with constant interruptions is known to affect stress, but how do interruptions affect emotional expression? Emotional expression can have significant impact on interactions among coworkers. We analyzed the video of 26 participants who performed an essay task in a laboratory while receiving either continual email interruptions or receiving a single batch of email. Facial videos of the participants were run through a convolutional neural network to determine the emotional mix via decoding of facial expressions. Using a novel co-occurrence matrix analysis, we showed that with batched email, a neutral emotional state is dominant with sadness being a distant second, and with continual interruptions, this pattern is reversed, and sadness is mixed with fear. We discuss the implications of these results for how interruptions can impact employees' well-being and organizational climate.